TOUT POUR ET PAR LE PEUPLE – EVERYTHING FOR AND BY THE PEOPLE
« Pour l’Honneur de la France, pour les intérêts sacrés de l’Humanité – For the Honour of France, for the sacred interests of Humanity »
(Napoléon le Grand, le 17 ventôse an VIII – Samedi 8 mars 1800 – Napoleon the Great, 17th of Ventôse Year VIII – Saturday 8th March 1800)
ON NAPOLEONIC IDEAS
NAPOLEON III, EMPEROR OF THE FRENCH
Translated from the French
by Paul-Napoléon Calland, President of the Bonapartist Movement, and published in French and English in honour of the two hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the birth of Napoleon the Great, on the Fifteenth of August, 2019.
Traduit du français par Paul-Napoléon Calland, Président du Mouvement Bonapartiste, et publié en français et en anglais en l’honneur du 250e anniversaire de Napoléon le Grand, le 15 août 2019.
CHAPTER III : INTERNAL MATTERS / QUESTION INTÉRIEURE
The judicial order, under the Directory, was composed of 417 correctional or criminal tribunals, and of 1,798 civil tribunals. In 1800, a tribunal of first instance was established in each communal arrondissement; and it had also cognisance of matters of correctional police, an arrangement which very much facilitated the administration of justice among the citizens. Above these tribunals of first instance, were constituted 29 courts of appeal. Each département had a criminal tribunal. The Court of Cassation sat in Paris. In 1810 the courts of appeal and the criminal courts were united, and received the title of imperial courts. They had cognisance both of civil and of criminal matters. The courts of assizes and the special courts were branches of the imperial courts. The union of these two kinds of justice had two advantages; first, to give a guarantee of justice to the accused in subjecting him to a less rigorous jurisdiction, one which was not exclusively confined to the discovery of crimes, in the matters which were brought before it; second, the civil magistracy being generally respected, and the criminal magistracy being, from the very nature of its functions, unpopular, the fusion of these two judicial bodies resulted in causing the criminal magistracy to partake in the public respect which surrounded the civil magistracy.
As a proof of the excellence of the judicial institutions of the Empire, it is well to remark that crimes constantly diminished in number, and that the number of prisoners of State, which was 9,000 on the 18th of Brumaire, was reduced to 150 in 1814.